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Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide is the principal strong base used in the chemical industry. In bulk it is most often handled as an aqueous solution, since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle. Sodium hydroxide, a strong base, is responsible for most of these applications. Another strong base such as potassium hydroxide is likely to yield positive results as well.

56 % of sodium hydroxide produced is used by the chemical industry, with 25 % of the same total used by the paper industry. Sodium hydroxide is also used for the manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, for pH regulation, and for organic synthesis. It is used in the Bayer process of aluminium production.[1]

Sodium hydroxide is used in all sorts of scenarios where it is desirable to increase the alkalinity of a mixture, or to neutralize acids.

For example, sodium hydroxide is used as an additive in drilling mud to increase alkalinity in bentonite mud systems increases the mud viscosity, as well as to neutralise any acid gas (such as hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide) which may be encountered in the geological formation as drilling progresses.

In the same industry, poor quality crude oil can be treated with sodium hydroxide to remove sulfurous impurities in a process known as caustic washing. As above, sodium hydroxide reacts with weak acids such as hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans to give the non-volatile sodium salts which can be removed. The waste which is formed is toxic and difficult to deal with, and the process is banned in many countries because of this. In 2006, Trafigura used the process and then dumped the waste in Africa.[
Sodium hydroxide is predominantly ionic, containing sodium cations and hydroxide anions. The hydroxide anion makes sodium hydroxide a strong base which reacts with acids to form water and the corresponding salts.

Hdissolution for aqueous dilution is −
44.45 kJ / mol
from aqueous solutions at 12.3–
61.8 C, it crystallizes in monohydrate, with a melting point 65.1 C and density of 1.829 g/cm3. The standard enthalpy change of formation (Hform) is −
734.95 kJ / mol.

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